Monday, July 21, 2008

Police seize reporter's materials while covering protest :CHINA

Olympic Games: Stadium in China
CHINA , 14 July 2008
European satellite operator suppresses independent Chinese-language TV station to satisfy Beijing
SOURCE: Reporters sans frontières (RSF), Paris

(RSF/IFEX) - RSF calls on Giuliano Berretta, the CEO of the European satellite company Eutelsat, to quickly reverse the decision to suspend independent Chinese-language broadcaster NTDTV's use of Eutelsat's W5 satellite to broadcast to Asia.
Eutelsat claims it was forced to suspend NTDTV (New Tang Dynasty Television) on 16 June because of a technical problem, but a recorded conversation with an employee of Eutelsat shows it was a premeditated, politically-motivated decision violating the free flow of information and the convention under which Eutelsat operates.

"The real reason for the decision to suppress NTDTV exposes how Eutelsat operates in China," RSF said. "The company's credibility is at stake and we urge its shareholders to intervene as quickly as possible so that NTDTV can resume broadcasting on this satellite. If that is not done, none of the TV companies that are Eutelsat clients will ever be sure they could not also be arbitrarily disconnected one day because of their content."

RSF added: "NTDTV's broadcasts irked the Chinese government because, thanks to this satellite, they could be freely received in tens of millions of Chinese homes. Their suspension just a few weeks ahead of the Olympic Games looks like a favour provided by Eutelsat with the aim of obtaining new deals. Eutelsat tried to drop NTDTV once before, in 2005, but an international campaign forced it to sign a new long term contract."

In a recorded conversation on 23 June with an interlocutor the employee thought was a Chinese Propaganda Department official, a Eutelsat representative in Beijing said:

"It was our company's CEO in France who decided to stop NTDTV's signal. (.
. .) We could have turned off any of the transponders. (. . .) It was because we got repeated complaints and reminders from the Chinese government. (. . .) Two years ago, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television kept saying the same thing over and over: 'Stop that TV station before we begin to talk.'"
RSF is posting a transcript of this conversation on its website ( http://www.rsf.org ) and it has an audio recording that is available to the media.

A New York-based TV station with links to the Falun Gong spiritual movement, NTDTV began broadcasting in Chinese four years ago. Its programmes are very different from the content on China's state TV stations. There is a great deal of coverage of human rights issues, including the repression in Tibet and of religious groups such as Falungong
and the underground Christian churches.
The day after it stopped transmitting NTDTV, Eutelsat issued a statement saying the W5 satellite has suffered serious technical problems that had forced the company to reduce the number of transponders and stop broadcasting several TV stations.

Eutelsat and Thales, the French company that made the satellite, are doing more and more business in China. It was Thales that manufactured Zhongxing-9, the satellite that was put in orbit in June to guarantee good coverage of the Olympic Games. Eutelsat has signed a contract with China to use its Long March rocket to launch Eutelsat satellites. The Wall Street Journal wrote in April: "Eutelsat for years has been trying to find a way
to penetrate the Chinese market, and launch contracts are widely seen as one way to help reach that goal."

As a company headquartered in France, Eutelsat is nonetheless obliged to respect the principles of equality of access, pluralism and non-discrimination enshrined in article 3 of the convention governing the operations of satellite companies.

Ever since NTDTV was launched in February 2002, the Chinese government has been trying to get its broadcasts suppressed by pressuring satellite operators and governments.

For further information on NTDTV's previous problems with Eutelsat, see:
http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/69314
For further information, contact Vincent Brossel, RSF, 47, rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris, France, tel: +33 1 44 83 84 70, fax: +33 1 45 23 11 51, e-mail: asia@rsf.org, Internet: http://www.rsf.org
The information contained in this alert is the sole responsibility of RSF.
In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit RSF.

CHINA, 16 July 2008
Police seize reporter's materials while covering protest
SOURCE: International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), Brussels

The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) and its affiliate the Hong Kong Journalists' Association (HKJA) today demanded an apology from the security bureau of Xicheng, Beijing, and the prompt of return journalistic materials seized from a Hong Kong reporter on July 11.
Chen Yang, a reporter for Ming Pao, was reportedly intercepted by four police, including two in plain clothes, while taking photos of hundreds of disgruntled investors protesting over alleged embezzlement of 170 million Chinese yuan by the President of the China Commodity Spot Exchange, Guo Yuanfeng.

Kevin Lau, Beijing Bureau Chief for Ming Pao, told the IFJ the police confiscated Chen's camera and memory card without explanation while checking his press card on July 11. Chen reportedly complained to the police and asked for the materials to be returned.
Lau also complained to the Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office of the State Council, and to central government representatives.
"This is unacceptable when we consider that it happened in the capital of China, Beijing, and during the Olympic Games period," Lau said.
The IFJ supports the HKJA's call for a "full and open explanation from the relevant authorities about this incident".
"Heavy-handed interference in a journalist's work is a direct attack on press freedom," said IFJ Asia-Pacific.
"China must ensure that journalists from Hong Kong and the rest of the world can report freely on matters of public importance without interference from government or security officials."

For further information, contact IFJ Asia-Pacific, tel: +612 9333 0919, or
the IFJ, International Press Centre, Residence Palace, Block C, 155 Rue de
la Loi, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium, tel: +322 235 2200 / 2207, fax: +322 235
2219, e-mail: rachel.cohen@ifj.org, Internet: http://www.ifj.org/

The information contained in this alert is the sole responsibility of IFJ.
In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit IFJ.
DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1 tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts email:
alerts@ifex.org general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of
http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.
If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email :
rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

RWANDA : Deputy managing editor of independent weekly deported

RWANDA 18 July 2008
Deputy managing editor of independent weekly deported
SOURCE: Reporters sans frontières (RSF), Paris

(RSF/IFEX) - Reporters Without Borders strongly condemns this week's deportation of Fuhara Mugisha, the deputy managing editor of Rwanda's leading independent weekly, "Umuseso". Despite having a Rwandan mother, Mugisha is a citizen of neighbouring Tanzania.

"This is an unacceptable act of intimidation that yet again highlights the Rwandan government's inability to tolerate the few independent publications," Reporters Without Borders said. "In the run-up to legislative elections, we remind the government that media diversity is an essential condition for the holding of democratic elections."

Plain-clothes police came to Mugisha's home in the north Kigali district of Kacyru at 4 a.m. (local time) on 12 July 2008 and said they wanted to take him to their office to assist in an investigation. But instead they drove him to the immigration department and from there he was taken to the Rumoso border crossing into Tanzania and expelled.

"This is all part of a desire to gag the press and uproot the independent media," weekly's publisher, Charles Kabonero, said. Employed by "Umuseso" since 2003, Mugisha was the victim of a knife attack in 2004 by assailants who were never identified.

With a Rwandan mother and a Tanzanian father, Mugisha used to have a Rwandan passport and ID card, but the authorities refused to renew them in 2005.

For further information, contact Léonard Vincent, RSF, 47, rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris, France, tel: +33 1 44 83 84 76, fax: +33 1 45 23 11 51, e-mail: africa@rsf.org, Internet: http://www.rsf.org
The information contained in this alert is the sole responsibility of RSF.
In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit RSF.
DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1 tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts email:
alerts@ifex.org general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email : rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

ZIMBABWE: Sky News employees fined, released and deported

ZIMBABWE, 15 July 2008
Sky News employees fined, released and deported
SOURCE: Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA), Windhoek

(MISA/IFEX) - Three South African nationals employed by Sky News – Bernet Hasani Sono, Resemate Chauke and Simon Musimani - who were serving a six-month jail term have since been released after a High Court judge reviewed the sentence and commuted it to a fine.
The three were convicted on their own plea to contravening Section 33 (1) of the Postal and Telecommunications Chapter 12:03 by illegally bringing broadcasting equipment into the country without a licence.
High Court judge Justice Maphios Cheda ruled that the trial magistrate had misdirected himself by imposing a custodial sentence in circumstances that warranted a non-custodial sentence. They were each fined Z$50 billion (approx. US$2.50) and immediately deported after paying the fines.
"Judicial offices have been advised by both this court and the Supreme Court that custodial sentences should only be imposed in very serious offences, of which this one is not. I agree with both counsels (state and defence) that the sentences passed are unduly harsh in the circumstances where justice called for non-custodial sentence," ruled Justice Cheda.

The three were represented by Tavengwa Hara who filed an urgent High Court application seeking a review of the matter, arguing that the sentence imposed by the trial magistrate was excessive.

BACKGROUND:
In passing the six-month jail sentence, Bulawayo Magistrate John Masimba said that although the three indicated that the broadcasting equipment did not belong to them, "possession of the equipment was an offence" and leniency for the trio would "send a wrong signal."
They were arrested on 23 May 2008 at a police roadblock in Mbalabala and found in possession of the equipment in question. The trio was sentenced on 2 June following their conviction on 30 May.
Updates the Sono, Chauke and Musimani case: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/94203
For further information, contact Kaitira Kandjii, Regional Director, Rashweat Mukundu, Programme Specialist, or Chilombo Katukula, Media Freedom Monitoring and Research Officer, MISA, Private Bag 13386, Windhoek, Namibia, tel: +264 61 232 975, fax: +264 61 248 016, e-mail: director@misa.org, research@misa.org, rashweat@misa.org, chilombo@misa.org, Internet: http://www.misa.org
The information contained in this update is the sole responsibility of MISA. In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit MISA.

DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1 tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts email:
alerts@ifex.org general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email : rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

Journalist from opposition-aligned newspaper and his son murdered

CAMBODIA 14 July 2008
Journalist from opposition-aligned newspaper and his son murdered; editor of same paper released, charges dropped
SOURCE: Southeast Asian Press Alliance (SEAPA), Bangkok

(SEAPA/IFEX) - SEAPA strongly condemns the fatal shooting of a Cambodian journalist and his son on 11 July 2008. Reporter Khim Sambo, 47, died on the spot after he was shot twice in the back as he emerged from a sports stadium in Phnom Penh on Friday evening. His son, Khat Sarin Theada, 22, was shot in the chest and later died in hospital. Phnom Penh's police chief Touch Naruth said they are still looking for the perpetrators.

SEAPA joins its alerts partner organisation, the Cambodian Association for the Protection of Journalists (CAPJ), in condemning this barbarous act. The organisations call on the Cambodian police and authorities to decisively bring the murderers to justice.
Khim Sambo's death comes amid heightening violence and tension in Cambodia in the run-up to general elections, scheduled for 27 July. The journalist had been working for the daily Khmer-language "Moneakseka Khmer" (Khmer Conscience), a newspaper known to back opposition leader Sam Rainsy.
"Moneakseka Khmer"'s editor, Dam Sith, was recently charged for printing allegations that Cambodia's foreign minister had ties to the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime, the Agence France Presse notes. The charge was later dropped, and CAPJ says that the attack on Khim Sambo came soon after Dam Sith's release.
CAPJ President Um Sarin stressed that unless the police move swiftly and reassuringly, the attack on Khim Sambo could have a chilling effect on Cambodia's press, and taint the larger environment for the upcoming elections.

SEAPA ( http://www.seapa.org ) is a coalition of press freedom advocacy groups from Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. Established in November 1998, the network aims to unite independent journalists and press-related organisations in the region into a force for the protection and promotion of press freedom and free expression in Southeast Asia. SEAPA is composed of the Alliance of Independent Journalists (Indonesia), the
Jakarta-based Institute for the Study of the Free Flow of Information (ISAI), the Manila-based Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility, the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, and the Thai Journalists Association.
Updates the Dam Sith case: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/94379
For further information, contact Roby Alampay, Executive Director, SEAPA, 538/1 Samsen Road, Dusit, Bangkok, 10300 Thailand, tel: +662 243 5579, fax: +662 244 8749, e-mail:
seapa@seapa.org, seapa@seapabkk.org, Internet: http://www.seapabkk.org
The information contained in this update is the sole responsibility of SEAPA. In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit SEAPA.
17 July 2008
Despite withdrawal of lawsuit, editor Dam Sith still facing criminal charges
SOURCE: Human Rights Watch
(New York, July 16, 2008) - With less than two weeks before Cambodia's National Assembly elections on July 27, the political climate has sharply deteriorated, highlighted by the killing of opposition journalist Khim Sambo and his son in a drive-by shooting on July 11 in Phnom Penh, Human Rights Watch said today.

At 6:30 p.m. on July 11, Sambo, 47, and his son, Khat Sarinpheata, 21, were fired upon numerous times by a man riding on the back of a motorcycle near Olympic Stadium in central Phnom Penh, where Sambo and his son had been exercising. Sambo died at the scene. His son died the following day in hospital.

"As in previous pre-election periods, this killing appears to be intended to send a message not to engage in opposition politics," said Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch.

Sambo had been a reporter for more than 10 years for Moneaksekar Khmer (Khmer Conscience), a newspaper affiliated with the opposition Sam Rainsy Party (SRP). It is one of the few newspapers in Cambodia that is not dominated by the government or the ruling Cambodian People's Party (CPP) of incumbent Prime Minister Hun Sen, which also controls most television and radio stations. Sambo was known for his hard-hitting articles about government corruption, political affairs, and land grabbing.

"The Cambodian authorities should surprise everyone for once and hold accountable those responsible for Khim Sambo's murder, no matter their political allegiance," said Adams. "Sadly, there is every reason to fear that Khim Sambo will be yet another opposition journalist whose killing will not be solved."

Just a month before his murder, military police arrested Moneaksekar Khmer editor, Dam Sith, who is also running as an SRP candidate in the elections, after the paper reported on allegations about the current foreign minister's role during the Khmer Rouge regime. Although Sith was released after several days in detention and the foreign minister dropped his lawsuit against the editor, criminal charges of defamation and disinformation are still pending against Sith under articles 62 and 63 of Cambodia's penal code.

The buildup to the July elections has been marked by intense and systematic efforts by the CPP to pressure opposition party members, particularly those from the SRP, to defect to the CPP. Lucrative offers of high-paying government positions or threats and reprisals against those who refuse have resulted in hundreds of opposition party members defecting to the CPP during this campaign.

One of those suffering reprisals as a result of the defection campaign is Tuot Saron, a local SRP leader in Kampong Thom province, who remains in detention almost four months after her arrest ( http://hrw.org/english/docs/2008/03/23/cambod18325.htm ).

In violation of election rules, the 11 political parties competing in the election do not have equal access to the media, especially radio and television. Most of the electronic media outlets in Cambodia have focused their election coverage almost exclusively on positive portrayals of the CPP or one-sided attacks on the opposition. On July 10, the National Election Commission (NEC) issued a warning to 13 television and radio stations for broadcasting biased coverage of the elections. Ten of those stations are dominated by pro-CPP coverage, according to the NEC.
Human Rights Watch called on the Cambodia authorities to promptly implement
other critically needed reforms in advance of the elections. These include to:

- Remove pending criminal charges against Dam Sith;
- Reissue the license and reopen Angkor Ratha (FM 105.25) radio in Kratie province, which was shut down by the government in May 2008 after it sold air time to opposition parties;
- Release SRP member Tuot Saron in Kompong Thom;
- Stop the unprecedented pressure by the CPP to coerce opposition party officials to defect to the CPP before the elections; and
- Ensure fair and equal access to electronic media.

"Elections in Cambodia are always fraught with violence and intimidation," said Adams. "While political violence is considerably less than in past elections, the fact that an opposition journalist has been gunned down on a busy city street has sent shock waves through the community of media workers, opposition party supporters, and the voting population in general."

For more of Human Rights Watch's work on Cambodia, please visit:
http://www.hrw.org/doc?t=asia&c=cambod
Updates the Dam Sith case: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/95326
For further information on the Khim Sambo case, see:
http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/95326
For further information on the Angkor Ratha radio case, see: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/94379
For further information, contact Brad Adams (English), London, U.K., tel: +44 20 7713 2767, mobile: +44 790 872 8333; Sophie Richardson (English, Mandarin), Washington, DC, tel: +1 202 612 4341, mobile: +1 917 721 7473; Reed Brody (English, French, Spanish, Portuguese), Brussels, Belgium, tel: +32 2 737 1489, mobile: +32 498 625 786; or Human Rights Watch, Washington Office, 1522 K Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005-1202, U.S.A., tel: +1 202
371 6592, fax: +1 202 371 0124, e-mail: hrwdc@hrw.org, Internet: http://www.hrw.org/
The information contained in this update is the sole responsibility of Human Rights Watch. In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit Human Rights Watch.

DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1 tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts email:
alerts@ifex.org general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.
If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email :
rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

Journalist in Danger:REPUBLIC OF CONGO

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO 14 July 2008
TV journalist released after overnight detention for allowing criticism of local authorities to be aired

SOURCE: Journaliste en danger (JED), Kinshasa; Reporters sans frontiers (RSF), Paris
Reporters Without Borders and its partner organisation in Democratic Republic of Congo, Journalist in Danger (JED), are relieved to learn that Mila Dipenge of privately-owned TV station Télé Kindu Maniema in Kindu, the capital of the eastern province of Maniema, was released at midday on 11 July 2008.
A programme host and cameraman, Dipenge was arrested on 10 July by the National Intelligence Agency (ANR).
"Dipenge was held for 24 hours by ANR agents for allowing Kindu residents to express their views," the two organisations said. "We firmly condemn such behaviour by the intelligence services and we point out they have no legal authority to raid a news media. This act of intimidation at the behest of a senior political figure must not recur."

The host of a daily programme called "The people have the word," Dipenge was released at 12:45 p.m. today after spending 24 hours being held by the ANR. He was arrested yesterday morning, when ANR agents carried out a raid on the studios of Télé Kindu Maniema, the local branch of Tele Kin Malebo.
Local sources said the raid was ordered by Governor Lingo because Dipenge allowed criticism of the local authorities to be voiced on the air.
People interviewed on 8 and 9 July criticised increases in taxes on local businessmen and retailers. The governor was said to have been particularly irked by a money-changer's comment that: "We like Kabila, but we no longer want the people he has installed here."

The TV station's recordings of its programmes were seized after the raid, while local financial and administrative officials began an audit of the station. One of the oldest TV stations in Maniema province, Télé Kindu Maniema is owned by an opposition senator.

For further information, contact D. M'Baya Tshimanga, President, JED, B.P. 633 Kinshasa 1, Democratic Republic of Congo, tel: +243 819 929 323, +243 999 996 353, +243 819 898 076, fax: +44 207 504 3544, e-mail: direction@jed-afrique.org, Internet: http://www.jed-afrique.org/; ou Léonard Vincent, RSF, 47, rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris, France, tel: +33 1 44 83 84 76, fax: +33 1 45 23 11 51, e-mail: africa@rsf.org, Internet:
http://www.rsf.org/
The information contained in this alert is the sole responsibility of JED and RSF. In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit JED and RSF.

17 July 2008
JED employees receive death threats
SOURCE: Reporters sans frontières (RSF), Paris
http://www.france24.com/france24Public/en/archives/news/world/20070824-france-ivory-coast-canadian-journalist-murdered-kieffer.php

(RSF/IFEX) - RSF has written an open letter to President Joseph Kabila, who begins a two-day state visit to France on 16 July 2008, voicing its concern about threats made recently against its partner organisation in Democratic Republic of Congo, Journalist en Danger (JED).
HE Joseph Kabila
President of the Republic
National Palace
Kinshasa-Gombe
Democratic Republic of Congo
Paris, 16 July 2008

Dear Mr. President,

As you arrive on an official visit to France, Reporters Without Borders would like to draw your attention to the threats that have been made against the press freedom group Journalist en Danger (JED), our partner organisation in Democratic Republic of Congo.

On 7 July, JED received an anonymous email from the address
patrie.pprdv@yahoo.com denigrating the organisation and making death threats. The message said: "Many people have already paid the price and that could happen to you at any time especially as we are here with you and you cannot identify us. We could have easily done it already, but the time will come." A man identifying himself as the author of the 7 July email made a threatening phone call to one of the JED members a week later from this number: +243 81 86 83 879.

We regard Journalist en Danger as an essential partner in our activities on behalf of press freedom. It received the 15th annual Reporters Without Borders - Fondation de France prize in 2006 and the independence and accuracy of its work is recognized by the international community. JED is a major asset for your country and is playing a key role in the transition of which you are in charge.

We therefore ask you to ensure that JED's members are protected and to do everything you can to put a stop to the threats against them. We have strong reasons to fear that these threats could be carried out.
We already voiced our exasperation and concern in September 2007 about the grave threats being made against JED executive-director Donat M'Baya Tshimanga and secretary-general Tshivis Tshivuadi, which resulted in their having to leave the country temporarily. We trust you will give this matter your careful consideration.

Sincerely,

Robert Ménard
Secretary-General

For further information on the Tshimanga and Tshivuadi cases, see:
http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/86166

For further information, contact Léonard Vincent, RSF, 47, rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris, France, tel: +33 1 44 83 84 76, fax: +33 1 45 23 11 51, e-mail: africa@rsf.org, Internet: http://www.rsf.org
The information contained in this alert is the sole responsibility of RSF.
In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit RSF.

DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1 tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts email:
alerts@ifex.org general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email : rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

CAMEROON :Authorities lift ban on three private broadcasters

CAMEROON, 14 July 2008
Authorities lift ban on three private broadcasters; Magic FM's equipment held by police
SOURCE: Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), New York
Cameroon broadcaster's equipment held by police
New York, July 8, 2008 - Cameroonian authorities have lifted a ban on three private broadcasters summarily closed in connection with their critical coverage in February, but police are withholding equipment seized from one station, according to local journalists and news reports.
Equinoxe Télévision, sister radio station Radio Equinoxe, and Magic FM were authorized to return to air on July 4 by Communications Minister Jean Pierre Biyiti bi Essam. However, police continued to hold the broadcasting equipment of Magic FM, a popular station and partner of international U.S. broadcaster Voice of America in the capital, Yaoundé, Editor-in-Chief Roger Kiyeck told CPJ.
Security forces forced Magic FM off the air during a February 28 raid in which they seized broadcasting equipment, after callers criticized President Paul Biya during a news program. When CPJ contacted Essam today about the equipment, Essam stated, "You are better informed than I am," without commenting further.
All three stations were distinguished for their pointed political coverage of a national debate on constitutional reform marred by violence, according to local journalists.

"We are relieved that Equinoxe Télévision, Radio Equinoxe, and Magic FM have finally been allowed to return to air," said Tom Rhodes, CPJ's Africa program coordinator. "We call on the government to abandon such crude tactics of censorship like these arbitrary closures of media outlets, and ask that authorities to ensure that all of Magic FM's equipment is returned immediately."

The Equinoxe stations were allowed to resume broadcasting based on their partial payments of Cameroon's hefty 100 million CFA francs (US$227,000) broadcast licensing fees, according to a decree issued by the ministry. Essam had invoked the nonpayment of such fees to summarily shut down the stations in February. Only four broadcasters operated with a license in Cameroon at the time of the closures, while the vast majority of stations broadcasted in what the press refers to as "administrative tolerance."

Police unsealed the Equinoxe studios in the commercial port town of Douala on Monday afternoon, according to local news reports. Radio Equinoxe returned to the air for two hours, but equipment repairs after nearly four months of disuse will likely keep the station off the air for another week, Editor-in-Chief Albert Yondjeu told CPJ.

Opposition Member of Parliament Jean-Jacques Ekindi accused the minister on July 4 of violating Cameroon's 1990 press law. "You are guilty of abuse of power," Ekindi was quoted in the leading daily Le Messager as saying.
CPJ is a New York-based, independent, nonprofit organization that works to safeguard press freedom worldwide. For more information, visit http://www.cpj.org .
Updates the Magic FM case: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/91227
Updates the Equinoxe television station case:
http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/90991
For further information, contact Africa Program Coordinator Tom Rhodes or Research Associate Mohamed Keita at CPJ, 330 Seventh Ave., New York, NY 10001, U.S.A., tel: +1 212 465 1004, fax: +1 212 465 9568, e-mail: trhodes@cpj.org, mkeita@cpj.org, Internet: http://www.cpj.org/
The information contained in this update is the sole responsibility of CPJ.
In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit CPJ.

DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1 tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts email:
alerts@ifex.org general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email : rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

SRI LANKA : series of attacks, threats and intimidation against journalists and media institutions

SRI LANKA, 18 July 2008
FMM condemns latest series of attacks, threats and intimidation against journalists and media institutions
SOURCE: Free Media Movement (FMM), Colombo

18 July 2008, Colombo, Sri Lanka: Given the number of reports on the intimidation and harassment of journalists the Free Media Movement (FMM) has received over the last two weeks, it is apparent that the Cabinet Subcommittee appointed by the government to look into the grievances of the media community is powerless to foster media freedom and the freedom of expression in Sri Lanka or investigate meaningfully the violence directed a journalists.
In early July, individuals claiming to be with the Police visited FMM spokesperson Sunanda Deshapriya's residence. He and his family had just moved to a newly rented residence and this incident took place within weeks of changing homes. It was found out that the names and positions given were completely false.

Sirasa TV court reporter T. Jayakumar was threatened and asked not to report a fundamental rights petition filed by a Major General against the military high command. The petition was heard in the Supreme Court on 7 July. When the court proceedings ended, a civil person came to journalist Jayakumar and threatened him against reporting the court proceedings to Sirasa TV. FMM is aware that around one month ago unknown persons had visited his residence and asked questions about him.
On 13 July, a Sinhala-language nationalist Sunday newspaper carried a distorted and inflammatory opinion in its defense column accusing a photographer of working against national security for taking a photograph of a bomber taking off from Sri Lanka's only international airport. The article said: "nowhere in the world is this kind of photograph allowed. Defense authorities should investigate how this foreign contract journalist
was able to take this photograph."
On 7 July, journalist Chaminda Kulathunga, provincial correspondent of Hambantota for a number of radio stations operating from Colombo, reported to FMM that he was assaulted by Hanbantota Police HQI Kalinga Silva, and his national identity card and tape recorder were seized. He was covering a demonstration organised by the Organization to Protect Peoples Rights in Hambabtota, where people demanded some roads and reservoirs to be repaired immediately.
On 14 July, Meegoda Hemapala, freelance provincial correspondent of "Giraduru Kotte", was threatened with death and his house was surrounded by a violent mob angered over his reporting of a child abuse case by police. Journalist Hemapala told FMM that OIC police had personally threatened him over this incident.
Provincial correspondent Mahamuni Subramaniam, working from the Northern
town of Vavuniya, reported to FMM that he has been facing continuous intimidations from known and unknown groups. A group of persons visited him on 7 July and questioned him about a photo published in the papers about the bomb blast in front of the Office of the Senior Superintendent of Police on 16 June. In his letter to FMM, Subramaniam says that two other Tamil journalists are living in fear due to continuing threats and intimidations from various quarters.
On 16 July an anonymous caller threatened Sri Lanka Press Institute (SLPI) staff. The caller said, "Your boss has come to work today, we will 'bump' you all." The person referred to was Mr. Ranga Kalansuriya, the Director General of SLPI, who reported to work that day after spending a few days working from home following death threats. This clearly shows there are persons who keep a close watch on SLPI and its staff movements.
On 16 July, a journalist with the Tamil daily "Veerakesari" was stopped by the Police at Town Hall junction in Colombo and questioned for nearly half an hour although he produced his media accreditation and newspaper identity card.
Condemning all these attacks and intimidations on journalists and media institutions, FMM demands that the cabinet sub committee on media take immediate action:
1. to investigate all these incidents in order to take appropriate measures.
2. to advice police personnel to respect journalists' right to gather information and not to interfere with their professional activities.

For further information on the ministerial subcommittee investigating safety concerns, see: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/95046

For further information, contact the Free Media Movement, 237/22, Wijeya
Kumaratunga Road, Colombo 05, Sri Lanka, tel: +94 777 312 457, +94 11 257
3439, fax: +94 11 471 4460, e-mail: fmm@sltnet.lk , Internet: http://www.freemediasrilanka.org
The information contained in this alert is the sole responsibility of FMM.
In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit FMM.
DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1
tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts e-mail: alerts@ifex.org
general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

---------------------------------------------------
This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.
If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email :
rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

European Parliament urged to support Global Online Freedom Act's

EUROPE, 18 July 2008
Members of European Parliament urged to support Global Online Freedom Act's
European version
SOURCE: Reporters sans frontières (RSF), Paris

(RSF/IFEX) - Reporters Without Borders is backing a proposed directive which Dutch MEP Jules Maaten was expected to submit to the European Parliament on 17 July 2008 and which would prevent Europe's Internet companies from being forced to cooperate with repressive regimes in censoring and monitoring the Internet. Inspired by America's proposed Global Online Freedom Act (GOFA), it would allow these companies to adopt a series of joint measures to resist such governments.

"We support this proposal and urge all Members of the European Parliament to support it too," Reporters Without Borders said. "Online freedom is not just threatened by Yahoo!'s cooperation with the Chinese authorities. Some European companies are also the accomplices of online censors."
Telecom Italia, for example, owns part of the Cuban telecommunications company ETECSA, the only ISP available in Cuba. The French ISP Orange is involved in China, Vietnam and Egypt, which are all on the Reporters Without Borders list of "Internet Enemies." The German company KCC Europe supplies North Korea with Internet access under an exclusive partnership signed in 2004.

Proposed by Maaten, a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, the directive urges European companies to assume their "responsibility to uphold the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and requires them, inter alia, to locate their servers outside repressive countries.
"Internet companies say they have to comply with the laws in the countries with which they have agreements because their servers are located inside these countries," Reporters Without Borders said. "But these laws very often violate international treaties that guarantee free expression. The European GOFA offers an alternative to such constraints, which are often a way for repressive government to obtain private data about these companies' clients and have them arrested."
The GOFA, which was proposed by Republican representative Christopher Smith and enjoys bipartisan support, has been approved by the House of Representatives foreign affairs committee and, as the energy and commerce committee waived its right to examine the bill, it now only awaits approval by the full house.
The GOFA was inspired in part by the example of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which the US Congress adopted in 1977 with the aim of stopping US companies from bribing corrupt officials in other countries and which had even greater impact after the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development adopted a similar anti-bribery convention in 1988.

This European version of the GOFA aims to forestall online censorship possibilities and to regulate the potentially repressive activities of European Internet companies. It would open the way for the creation of an Office of Global Internet Freedom with the job of combating online censorship by the most repressive governments and protecting the personal data of Internet users.

For further information on the US Global Online Freedom Act, see: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/87181
For further information contact Clothilde Le Coz, Internet Freedom desk, RSF, 47, rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris, France, tel: +33 1 44 83 84 71, fax: +33 1 45 23 11 51, e-mail:
internet@rsf.org , Internet: http://www.internet.rsf.org
The information contained in this alert is the sole responsibility of RSF. In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit RSF.
DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1
tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts e-mail:
alerts@ifex.org
general e-mail:
ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org /
This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.
If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email :
rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

Journalists assaulted, newspaper's circulation impeded

PERU ,18 July 2008
Journalists assaulted, newspaper's circulation impeded, following coverage of Chosica mayor's alleged sexual abuse of employees
SOURCE: Institute for Press and Society (IPYS), Lima

(IPYS/IFEX) - On 15 July 2008, municipal workers in Chosica threatened and hurled insults at journalists Raúl Vento, Roxana Rivera and Elizabeth Salinas, of the "Conoeste" weekly newspaper, as they were handing out copies of the 13 July edition of the daily "El Comercio". "El Comercio"'s 13 July edition contained witness testimonies accusing the municipality's mayor, Luis Bueno Quino, of abuse of power, sexual harassment and the
transmission of contagious illnesses, alleging that he had forced several municipal workers to have sexual intercourse with him or face losing their jobs, despite knowing that he is a carrier of HIV. Chosica is located east of Lima.

The three journalists, who have been investigating the case involving the mayor for their weekly since 2006, and who have been attacked on several occasions because of those investigations, told IPYS that the municipality's security and administrative workers seized the bags with the copies of the newspaper from them.
The "El Comercio" revelations angered the district's population and led to a demonstration in front of the town hall buildings on 16 July, with demands that the mayor resign from his position. During the demonstration, workers who support the mayor, along with a group of thugs, assaulted reporters who were covering the event. Journalists identified Francesco Ramoni, Martín León and another man called "Ivan" among those responsible for the assaults.
The "Conoeste" journalists also reported that, on 16 July, members of the municipal police (Serenazgo) intimidated newsstand owners in an attempt to prevent them from displaying newspapers that had reproduced the "El Comercio" accusations. The sale of those papers was also prohibited at several newsstands.

Updates the Vento, Rivera and Salinas case: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/91557

For further information, contact Adriana León or Carlos Bracamonte at IPYS,
Calle Sucre no 317, Barranco, Lima, Peru, tel: +511 247 3308, +511 247 0406, fax: +511 2 473194, e-mail: postmaster@ipys.org, Internet: http://www.ipys.org

The information contained in this update is the sole responsibility of IPYS. In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit IPYS.

DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1
tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts e-mail: alerts@ifex.org
general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/


This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of
http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.
If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email :
rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

Military cronies' involvement in media resulting in self-censorship

BURMA, 18 July 2008
Military cronies' involvement in media resulting in self-censorship, reduced media diversity
SOURCE: Mizzima News, New Delhi

(Mizzima/IFEX) - The following is a 17 June 2008 Mizzima News report:
Cronyism; unhealthy competition in media market The sustainability of most local media outlets in Burma is now apparently jeopardised not only by the censorship board's interference but also the unscrupulous approach of military cronies, resulting in an obstruction of the growth of private media.
Despite the military government's healthier attitude towards local private media development in recent years, amid the private media's intense struggle to surge up in a still unfair field of operations, a number of media owners, who are in favour of undue government authority, have come to monopolise the industry.
Burma's news journal operators, of which there are no more than 12, fall into two broad categories: those who, regardless of the interests of the public, rush to ally themselves with the authorities in order to survive or to dominate the media market, and the other group of operators, who are building their own capacity to be able to compete in the gradually-growing market.
The leading media outlets that are in the first category are few but are strong enough financially to be able to exert undue influence over the censorship board authorities.

"They are few in number, but they are strong financially. They reserve their strength for curbing others' growth in order to offset fair competition," said an editor of a recently launched news weekly, adding that they had close relationships with high ranking government authorities such as Brigadier General Kyaw Hsan, the minister for the Ministry of Information, which handles the censorship procedures and grants publishing
licenses. The Press Scrutiny and Registration Division of the censorship board is
called Sarpay Kempeitai among Burmese writers and journalists, an allusion to Japanese military police who suppressed and widely committed atrocities on the Burmese independence revolutionaries during the Second World War.
Every article needs to be submitted to the censorship board before publishing. Failure to do so can even result in jail sentences for the media outlet personnel responsible.

For the last five years, media outlets run by cronies of the military have misused the government to suppress the growth of other local media rivals, as they fear fair competition in the growing local print media industry - especially in the weeklies segment, known locally as journals.
"Their positions are more apparent amid increased censorship and personal bias by the Government's Office of Press Scrutiny along with the domestic political impasse, which also results in limited survival of these businesses, similar to the situation in other business sectors in Myanmar (Burma), due in part to the government's mismanagement of the country's business environment," the editor said.
These media outlets showcase a few comments seemingly critical of government policies in their editorials, but applaud the government in most of the content disseminated. For example, they carried articles to shape the general public's mindset to follow the government's so-called seven-step Road Map to democracy. As well, the demise of a popular weekly journal was said to be linked to crony media outlets' undue influence over the head of the press scrutiny office, which early this year stripped the weekly's operating license over a news article it had run despite the censorship board's denial of permission to do so.
There are several reasons why the "crony" media outlets are in a position to exert that kind of control. Colonel Soe Naing Oo, head of the Office of Senior General Than Shwe, is a major stakeholder of a leading media company (. . .) and used his connections to influence the censorship board. "(. . .) They make efforts to suppress others' growth in an early stage of development of the Myanmar news media industry, exploiting their close
relationship with the authorities," the editor said.
Meanwhile, another senior editor who works for a Rangoon-based leading publication said private print media are increasing in number, despite myriad challenges, including the high cost of raw materials, lack of technology and equipment. He points out that quality, rather than quantity, will ultimately determine long-term success, with possibilities in the long run such as media partnerships.
"If we are to look critically at our media, improvements in quality have not necessarily matched increases in quantity. We have a considerable issue here," he said. More than anything, to establish a new media company requires deep pockets.
(. . .)
Nevertheless, challenges such as censorship do not hamper capacity building among local journalists. Despite these challenges local journalists are becoming more creative in their professional development. They are working in a unique age that offers them opportunities like training and media fellowships overseas.
(. . .)
In a healthy media environment, the public sector would merely act as a regulatory authority and the private sector would have some measure of independence.
"Especially, the broadcasting sector in Myanmar needs to develop more so the country can enjoy benefits like increased business and employment opportunities, and so the people can get information in a timely manner," he added.

For further information, contact Soe Myint, Editor-in-Chief, Mizzima News, DG-III/45, Vikaspuri, New Delhi-110018, India, tel/fax: +91 11 2853 5548, e-mail: mizzima@hotmail.com , editor@mizzima.com , Internet: http://www.mizzima.com , http://www.mizzima.tv

The information contained in this weblog is the sole responsibility of Mizzima. In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit Mizzima.

DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1
tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts e-mail: alerts@ifex.org general e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

-----------------------------

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.
If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email :
rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

Kazakhstan : newspaper reporter threatened and other news

Kazakhstan : newspaper reporter threatened by hospital doctor

Kazakhstan : newspaper reporter threatened by hospital doctor Vladimir Prutik, a reporter with the local newspaper Kommerts, was threatened on 8 July by the head of the
trauma unit of a hospital in the southern town of Jezqazghan over a 19 June article about miners being treated for injuries sustained in work accident. Both the hospital and mine belong to Kazakhmys, a company owned by billionaire businessman Vladimir Kim.
Part of the article consisted of an interview with the doctor. Prutik, who still has an audio recording of the interview, is worried about his safety. The doctor reportedly told him: “We are going to break your nose and tear off your legs.” Prutik said he was also threatened last February when he wrote about strikes in the same company’s mines.

Iraq/Kurdistan:
online contributor given one-month suspended prison sentence for “defamation”

Reporters Without Borders condemned a one-month suspended prison sentence handed down on 16 July to Chirzad Chikhani, together with a small fine, for “defamation” under Article 433 of the criminal code. The contributor to the Arabic-language news website Elaph was prosecuted on the basis of a complaint by the governor of Erbil province in Kurdistan over an article posted in August 2007 that exposed enmity between the governor and the justice minster after the governor ordered the security services to close an official service the head of which had been appointed by the minister. The justice system continued with proceedings against Chikhani even though the governor decided to withdraw his complaint a few months later.

Iran/United Nations:
Call for appointment of special human rights rapporteur on Iran
Reporters Without Borders has written to the office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to urge the appointment of a special rapporteur who could play an active role in the prevention of free expression violations in Iran.
The worldwide press freedom organisation expressed its deep concern about the still very poor state of press freedom in the Islamic Republic.“Since the UN General Assembly condemned Iran on 18 December 2007, the country has seen an upsurge of violations of press freedom. More than 20 newspapers have been closed in the past six months, 13
journalists and cyber-dissidents have been sentenced at the end of unfair trials to prison sentences ranging from six months to 11 years”, it said in its letter of 15 July 2008.

“We have also recorded more than 20 summons and arrests since the start of the year. Seven journalists are currently in prison in the country, making Iran the Middle-East’s largest prison for the media”, Reporter Without Borders wrote. The organisation also raised the case of two Iranian journalists, Adnan Hassanpour and Hiva Botimar, who
were sentenced to death in July 2007.
Finally, the circumstances surrounding the murder in July 2006 of Turkish journalist of Kurdish origin, Ayfer Serce, have never been fully elucidated. The Iranian authorities have refused to hand over the body to her family. Reporters Without Borders has learned that the journalist was believed killed by the Iranian Army.

Cohn-Bendit sents prisoner list to Sarkozy
Daniel Cohn-Bendit, the co-president of the Greens Group in the European parliament, yesterday sent French President Nicolas Sarkozy a list of seven Chinese political prisoners whose release he wants Sarkozy to request when he visits Beijing. The seven named by Cohn-Bendit are Hu Jia, Huang Qi, human rights lawyers Chen Guangcheng and Yang Maodong, Tibetan monk Tenzin Delek, Falun Gong member Bu Dongwei and activist Yang Chunlin. Sarkozy invited him to submit the list after Cohn-Bendit criticised him in the European Parliament for deciding to attend the Olympic Games opening ceremony in Beijing.


Syria:
Al-Hayat issue banned over coverage of Assad trip to France


Reporters Without Borders condemns a Syrian government ban on distribution of yesterday’s issue of the London-based daily Al-Hayat. According to the news website Elaph, it was prompted by an article by Saudi journalist Daoud Al-Sharayan criticising the position taken by President Bashar el-Assad during his visit to France for the launch of the Union for the Mediterranean. Headlined “Combatants lie even when they tell the
truth,” it accused Assad of uttering “empty slogans” and of being very distant towards Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, who was also in Paris. Sharayan wrote that the improvement in Syria’s relations with Israel was at the expense of its relations with the Arab countries. He also claimed that Assad seem happy to sit at the same table with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. Syria banned distribution of the magazine Al Moujtama’a Al-Iktisadi (Economic Society) last February for reporting that several Syrian leaders had dual citizenship, with their second passport often being either American or Canadian.

Pakistan : Islamist protesters threaten liberal daily

Members of a fundamentalist group staged a protest outside the Red Mosque in Islamabad on 12 July that was targeted against Aaj Kal, a liberal daily that often criticises religious extremism. A member of the newspaper’s staff who covered the demonstration said the protesters chanted slogans calling on editor Najam Sethi not to “test our patience.” Fundamentalists accuse Aaj Kal of having an anti-jihad line and threaten to teach it a “lesson”. Aaj Kal’s editor called the protest an “attack on press freedom” while information minister Sherry Rehman said the government would respond to the attacks on basic freedoms and promised to protect Aaj Kal’s Islamabad offices. The Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors was also firm in its condemnation of the protest.
Aaj Kal received several threatening phone calls from the same fundamentalist group prior to the demonstration.

Russia:
one-year suspended prison sentence for blog post critical of police


Reporters Without Borders deplores the one-year suspended prison sentence that a court in Syktyvkar, in the far-north Komi Republic, imposed on blogger Savva Terentyev on 7 July under article 282 of the criminal code for a blog post about the Russian police that allegedly “incited hatred and humiliated members of a social group.”
“This decision is disproportionate,” Reporters Without Borders said. “We are very disturbed by the persecution of online ‘extremism’ in Russia as it often seems like a way of suppressing criticism. Terentyev’s sentence highlights the degree of suspicion which the authorities harbour towards the Internet.” A 22-year-old musician resident in Syktyvkar, Terentyev posted his offending comment on journalist Boris Suranov’s blog on 15 February 2007. He wrote: “Those who become cops - rednecks and thugs - are the dumbest and least educated representatives of the live/animal world.”



HAITI/SPAIN
Spanish authorities reopen investigation into 2004 murder of Antena 3 correspondent Ricardo Ortega
SOURCE: Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), New York

(CPJ/IFEX) - The following is a 16 July 2008 CPJ press release:
HAITI: Spanish authorities restart Haiti murder investigation The Committee to Protect Journalists is encouraged by the decision of Spanish authorities to reactivate the
investigation into the 2004 murder of Antena 3 correspondent Ricardo Ortega, who was fatally shot in Haiti while covering the ouster of former President Jean Bertrand Aristide. As part of this process, CPJ European consultant Borja Bergareche was one of several journalists who briefed Judge Pablo Ruz of the Central Criminal Court in Madrid on CPJ's research into the case.
On June 24, Judge Ruz reopened legal procedures in the Ortega case. The Criminal Court has jurisdiction over violent death cases of Spanish citizens that occur in a foreign country. In April 2007, Spanish authorities called on Haiti to create a joint official commission to look into the case, but no such commission has been formed.
"We welcome the decision of Spanish authorities to reopen the investigation into Ricardo Ortega's murder," said CPJ Senior Americas Program Coordinator Carlos Lauría. "More than four years after the killing, no one has been prosecuted. It is crucial to establish who fired the fatal shot and bring those responsible to justice."
Ortega was killed in a demonstration in Port-au-Prince on March 7, 2004, following Aristide's chaotic departure. Weeks after the murder, Aristide supporter Yvon Antoine and Police Inspector Jean-Michel Gaspard were arrested and investigated for their involvement in the incident. Both have been released since and were not charged.
Bergareche referred the judge to CPJ's report about press freedom conditions in Haiti in 2004. The European consultant told Judge Ruz that CPJ filed a U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request with the U.S. military's Southern Command in December 2007. The FOIA request seeks any documents, coded messages, cables, photographs, briefing cables, memoranda, e-mail, affidavits, charts or maps, transcribed or electronically recorded correspondence, and conversations (including, but not limited to: mail, telephones, computers, and radio) related to the Ortega case.
After conducting its own investigation and interviewing witnesses in Haiti in October 2004, Antena 3 concluded that the U.S. military could have fired the bullet that killed Ortega. After Aristide's ouster, U.S. Marines and foreign soldiers were sent to restore stability in Haiti. A U.S. Embassy official disputed that assertion in an interview with the station. The Marine Corps did not respond to inquiries from CPJ seeking comment at the
time.
Last May, Ortega's family disclosed a court decision from a Haitian judge, which asserted that the bullet that killed the Spanish reporter may have been shot by foreign soldiers.
Bergareche also told the judge that impunity is the norm in most cases of murdered journalists. Over the last 15 years, about 500 journalists have been murdered around the world in direct relation to their work, CPJ research shows. Justice has been served in less than 15 percent of these cases. With support from the Knight Foundation, CPJ launched a global campaign to combat impunity in November 2007.

Updates the Ortega case: http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/93769

For further information, contact Carlos Lauría (x120) or María Salazar (x118) at CPJ, 330 Seventh Ave., New York NY 10001, U.S.A., tel: +1 212 465 1004, fax: +1 212 465 9568, e-mail: clauria@cpj.org, msalazar@cpj.org, Internet: http://www.cpj.org/

The information contained in this update is the sole responsibility of CPJ.
In citing this material for broadcast or publication, please credit CPJ.

DISTRIBUTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
EXCHANGE (IFEX) CLEARING HOUSE
555 Richmond St. West, # 1101, PO Box 407 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5V 3B1
tel: +1 416 515 9622 fax: +1 416 515 7879 alerts e-mail: alerts@ifex.orggeneral e-mail: ifex@ifex.org Internet site: http://www.ifex.org/

This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, all news and information posted herein, are collected from mostly electronic media/ online (published) news. The source party/ or the name who has the credit of the news shoulders all responsibility of the concerned news have been mentioned along with the posted/published news at bottom of every news, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email : rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

Saturday, July 19, 2008

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA : For all Indian

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA : A must readable book for every Indian



THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA is divided into 22 parts apart from preamble. Every Indian citizen should read it and know it well . It is a great Book of a great country.The contents as follows:
PREAMBLE
PART I : THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY, ARTICLE, (1 to 4)
PART II: CITIZENSHIP, ARTICLE ( 5 to 11)
PART III : FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS, ARTICLE (12 to 35)
PART IV : DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY, ARTICLE (36 to 51)
PART IVA : FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES, ARTICLE (51A)
PART V : THE UNION,
CHAPTER I. -THE EXECUTIVE (The President and Vice-President), ARTICLE (52 to78) , CHAPTER II. -PARLIAMENT (Constitution of Parliament.), ARTICLE (79 to122) , CHAPTER III. -LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT (Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.), ARTICLE (123), CHAPTER IV.- THE UNION JUDICIARY (Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court ), ARTICLE (124 to 147) , CHAPTER V.- COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA, ARTICLE (148 to 151)
PART VI : THE STATES, CHAPTER I-. GENERAL (Definition), ARTICLE (152)
CHAPTER II.- THE EXECUTIVE (Governors of States), ARTICLE (153 to 167) ,
CHAPTER III.-THE STATE LEGISLATURE (Constitution of Legislatures in States), ARTICLE ( 168 to 212) , CHAPTER IV.- LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR (Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature) ARTICLE (213) ,
CHAPTER V---THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES (High Courts for States) ARTICLE (214 to231)
CHAPTER VI--SUBORDINATE COURTS (Appointment of district judges), ARTICLE (233 to 237)
PART VII : THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE ([Repealed]), ARTICLE (238)
PART VIII : THE UNION TERRITORIES (Administration of Union territories), ARTICLE (239 to 242)
PART IX : THE PANCHAYATS (Definitions), ARTICLE ( 243 to 243O)
PART IXA : THE MUNICIPALITIES (Definitions), ARTICLE 243P to 243ZG)

PART X : THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS (Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas) ARTICLE (244 to 244A)
PART XI : RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I.-LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS (Distribution of Legislative Powers) ARTICLE (245 to 255) , CHAPTER II.-- ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS (General) ARTICLE (256 to 263),
PART XII : FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS
CHAPTER I.-FINANCE ( General, Interpretation.) ARTICLE (264 to 291) ,
CHAPTER II.- BORROWING(Borrowing by the Government of India) ARTICLE (292, 293) ,
CHAPTER III.- PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS (Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases) ARTICLE (294 to 300) , CHAPTER IV.- RIGHT TO PROPERTY (Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law) ARTICLE (300A) ,
PART XIII : TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA, ARTICLE (301 to 307)
PART XIV : SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES , CHAPTER I.- SERVICES (Interpretation), ARTICLE (308 to 314) , CHAPTER II.—PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS, ARTICLE (315 to 323) ,
PART XIVA : TRIBUNALS (Administrative tribunals), ARTICLE (323A, 323B)
PART XV : ELECTIONS (Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission), ARTICLE (324 to 329A)
PART XVI : SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES (Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People.) ARTICLE (330 to 342)
PART XVII : OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
CHAPTER I.—LANGUAGE OF THE UNION(Official language of the Union) ARTICLE (343, 344) ,CHAPTER II.-- REGIONAL LANGUAGES (Official language or languages of a State) ARTICLE (345 to 347) , CHAPTER III. -LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC. Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc. ARTICLE ( 348, 349) , CHAPTER IV. --SPECIAL DIRECTIVES (Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances) ARTICLE (350 to 351)
PART XVIII : EMERGENCY PROVISIONS (Proclamation of Emergency) ARTICLE
(352 to 360)
PART XIX : MISCELLANEOUS (Protection of President and Governors and Rajprakukhs.) ARTICLE (361 to 367)
PART XX : AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE 368
PART XXI : TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS ARTICLE (369 to 392)
PART XXII : SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT
IN HINDI AND REPEALS , ARTICLE
(393 to 395)

The great Indian spirit reflects in it’s PREAMBLE.
Preamble


WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA UPDATED UPTO 94th AMENDMENT ACT ALONG WITH ALL THE CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT ACTS UPTO 94th CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT ACT.

Jawaharlal Nehru signing the Constitution of India on January 24, 1950

PART III contains civil liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace and harmony as citizens of India. These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom to practice religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights by means of writs such as habeas corpus. Violations of these rights result in punishments as prescribed in the Indian Penal Code, subject to discretion of the judiciary. The Fundamental Rights are defined as basic human freedoms which every Indian citizen has the right to enjoy for a proper and harmonious development of personality. These rights universally apply to all citizens, irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, colour or sex. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain restrictions. The Rights have their origins in many sources, including England's Bill of Rights, the United States Bill of Rights and France's Declaration of the Rights of Man.


FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS of Indian citizen , it starts from article no 12 to 35.
The great Article as follows:
General
12. Definition.—In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, “the State’’ includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.
13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.—(1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.
(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.
(3) In this article, unless the context otherwise requires,—
(a) “law” includes any Ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage having in the territory of India the force of law;
(b) “laws in force” includes laws passed or made by a Legislature or other competent authority in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed, notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in operation either at all or in particular areas.
(4) Nothing in this article shall apply to any amendment of this Constitution made under article 368.
Right to Equality
14. Equality before law.—The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.
15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.—(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to—
(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or
(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.
(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.
(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.—(1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.
(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment.
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State.
(4A) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for reservation in matters of promotion, with consequential seniority, to any class or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which, in the opinion of the State, are not adequately represented in the services under the State.
(4B) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from considering any unfilled vacancies of a year which are reserved for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for reservation made under clause (4) or clause (4A) as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent. reservation on total number of vacancies of that year.
(5) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination.
17. Abolition of Untouchability.—“Untouchability’’ is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of “Untouchability’’ shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
18. Abolition of titles.—(1) No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State.
(2) No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State.
(3) No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State.
(4) No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State.
Right to Freedom
19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.—(1) All citizens shall have the right—
(a) to freedom of speech and expression;
(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms;
(c) to form associations or unions;
(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India;
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and
* * * * *
(g) to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.
(3) Nothing in sub-clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.
(4) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order or morality, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.
(5) Nothing in sub-clauses (d) and (e) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub-clauses either in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe.
(6) Nothing in sub-clause (g) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the general public, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause, and, in particular, nothing in the said sub-clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it relates to, or prevent the State from making any law relating to,—
(i) the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or business, or
(ii) the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation owned or controlled by the State, of any trade, business, industry or service, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or otherwise.
20
. Protection in respect of conviction for offences.—(1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the Act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence.
(2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.
(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
21. Protection of life and personal liberty.—No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. —(1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice.
(2) Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of twenty-four hours of such arrest excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the court of the magistrate and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period without the authority of a magistrate.
(3) Nothing in clauses (1) and (2) shall apply—
(a) to any person who for the time being is an enemy alien; or
(b) to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.
(4) No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than three months unless—
(a) an Advisory Board consisting of persons who are, or have been, or are qualified to be appointed as, Judges of a High Court has reported before the expiration of the said period of three months that there is in its opinion sufficient cause for such detention:
Provided that nothing in this sub-clause shall authorise the detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by Parliament under sub-clause (b) of clause (7); or
(b) such person is detained in accordance with the provisions of any law made by Parliament under sub-clauses (a) and (b) of clause (7).
(5) When any person is detained in pursuance of an order made under any law providing for preventive detention, the authority making the order shall, as soon as may be, communicate to such person the grounds on which the order has been made and shall afford him the earliest opportunity of making a representation against the order.
(6) Nothing in clause (5) shall require the authority making any such order as is referred to in that clause to disclose facts which such authority considers to be against the public interest to disclose.
(7) Parliament may by law prescribe—
(a) the circumstances under which, and the class or classes of cases in which, a person may be detained for a period longer than three months under any law providing for preventive detention without obtaining the opinion of an Advisory Board in accordance with the provisions of sub-clause (a) of clause (4);
(b) the maximum period for which any person may in any class or classes of cases be detained under any law providing for preventive detention; and
(c) the procedure to be followed by an Advisory Board in an inquiry under sub-clause (a) of clause (4).
Right against Exploitation
23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.—(1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them.
24. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. —No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

Right to Freedom of Religion
25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.—(1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion.
(2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law—
(a) regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;
(b) providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus.
Explanation I.—The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion.
Explanation II.—In sub-clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed accordingly.
26. Freedom to manage religious affairs.—Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right—
(a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;
(b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;
(c) to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and
(d) to administer such property in accordance with law.
27. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.—No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious denomination.
28. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.—(1) No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.
(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution.
(3) No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto.
Cultural and Educational Rights
29. Protection of interests of minorities.—(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.
(2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.
30. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. — (1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
(1A) In making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority, referred to in clause (1), the State shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for the acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause.
(2) The State shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.
* * *
31. [Compulsory acquisition of property.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 6 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).
Saving of Certain Laws
31A. Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law providing for—
(a) the acquisition by the State of any estate or of any rights therein or the extinguishment or modification of any such rights, or
(b) the taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of the property, or
(c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or
(d) the extinguishment or modification of any rights of managing agents, secretaries and treasurers, managing directors, directors or managers of corporations, or of any voting rights of shareholders thereof, or
(e) the extinguishment or modification of any rights accruing by virtue of any agreement, lease or licence for the purpose of searching for, or winning, any mineral or mineral oil, or the premature termination or cancellation of any such agreement, lease or licence,
shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by article 14 or article 19:
Provided that where such law is a law made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent:
Provided further that where any law makes any provision for the acquisition by the State of any estate and where any land comprised therein is held by a person under his personal cultivation, it shall not be lawful for the State to acquire any portion of such land as is within the ceiling limit applicable to him under any law for the time being in force or any building or structure standing thereon or appurtenant thereto, unless the law relating to the acquisition of such land, building or structure, provides for payment of compensation at a rate which shall not be less than the market value thereof.
(2) In this article,—
(a) the expression ‘‘estate’’ shall, in relation to any local area, have the same meaning as that expression or its local equivalent has in the existing law relating to land tenures in force in that area and shall also include—
(i) any jagir, inam or muafi or other similar grant and in the States of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, any janmam right;
(ii) any land held under ryotwari settlement;
(iii) any land held or let for purposes of agriculture or for purposes ancillary thereto, including waste land, forest land, land for pasture or sites of buildings and other structures occupied by cultivators of land, agricultural labourers and village artisans;
(b) the expression ‘‘rights’’, in relation to an estate, shall include any rights vesting in a proprietor, sub-proprietor, under-proprietor, tenure-holder, raiyat, under-raiyat or other intermediary and any rights or privileges in respect of land revenue.
31B. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.—Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in article 31A, none of the Acts and Regulations specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of the provisions thereof shall be deemed to be void, or ever to have become void, on the ground that such Act, Regulation or provision is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, any provisions of this Part, and notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court or Tribunal to the contrary, each of the said Acts and Regulations shall, subject to the power of any competent Legislature to repeal or amend it, continue in force.
31C. Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.—Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law giving effect to the policy of the State towards securing 1[all or any of the principles laid down in Part IV] shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by article 14 or article 19; 2and no law containing a declaration that it is for giving effect to such policy shall be called in question in any court on the ground that it does not give effect to such policy:
Provided that where such law is made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent.
31D. [Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act,1977, s.2 (w.e.f.13-4-1978).
Right to Constitutional Remedies
32. Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.—(1) The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed.
(2) The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part.
(3) Without prejudice to the powers conferred on the Supreme Court by clauses (1) and (2), Parliament may by law empower any other court to exercise within the local limits of its jurisdiction all or any of the powers exercisable by the Supreme Court under clause (2).
(4) The right guaranteed by this article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution.
32A. [Constitutional validity of State laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 32.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 3 (w.e.f. 13-4-1978).
33. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc.—Parliament may, by law, determine to what extent any of the rights conferred by this Part shall, in their application to,—
(a) the members of the Armed Forces; or
(b) the members of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order; or
(c) persons employed in any bureau or other organisation established by the State for purposes of intelligence or counter intelligence; or
(d) persons employed in, or in connection with, the telecommunication systems set up for the purposes of any Force, bureau or organisation referred to in clauses (a) to (c),
be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them
34. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area.—Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, Parliament may by law indemnify any person in the service of the Union or of a State or any other person in respect of any act done by him in connection with the maintenance or restoration of order in any area within the territory of India where martial law was in force or validate any sentence passed, punishment inflicted, forfeiture ordered or other act done under martial law in such area.
35. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.—Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,—
(a) Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, power to make laws—
(i) with respect to any of the matters which under clause (3) of article 16, clause (3) of article 32, article 33 and article 34 may be provided for by law made by Parliament; and
(ii) for prescribing punishment for those acts which are declared to be offences under this Part;
and Parliament shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Constitution, make laws for prescribing punishment for the acts referred to in sub-clause (ii);
(b) any law in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in the territory of India with respect to any of the matters referred to in sub-clause (i) of clause (a) or providing for punishment for any act referred to in sub-clause (ii) of that clause shall, subject to the terms thereof and to any adaptations and modifications that may be made therein under article 372, continue in force until altered or repealed or amended by Parliament.
Explanation.—In this article, the expression "law in force'' has the same meaning as in article 372.

The making of THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA : a historical outline
The development of constitutionally guaranteed fundamental human rights in India was inspired by historical examples such as England's Bill of Rights (1689), the United States Bill of Rights (approved on September 17, 1787, final ratification on December 15, 1791) and France's Declaration of the Rights of Man (created during the revolution of 1789, and ratified on August 26, 1789). Under the educational system of British Raj, students were exposed to ideas of democracy, human rights and European political history. The Indian student community in England was further inspired by the workings of parliamentary democracy and British political parties. In 1928, the Nehru Commission composing of representatives of Indian political parties proposed constitutional reforms for India that apart from calling for dominion status for India and elections under universal suffrage, would guarantee rights deemed fundamental, representation for religious and ethnic minorities, and limit the powers of the government. In 1931, the Indian National Congress adopted resolutions committing itself to the defense of fundamental civil rights, as well as socio-economic rights such as the minimum wage and the abolition of untouchability and slavery. Committing themselves to socialism in 1936, the Congress leaders took examples from the constitution of the erstwhile USSR, which inspired the fundamental duties of citizens as a means of collective patriotic responsibility for national interests and challenges. When India obtained independence on 15 August 1947, the task of developing a constitution for the nation was undertaken by the Constituent Assembly of India, composing of elected representatives under the presidency of Rajendra Prasad. Notably, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar became the chairperson of the drafting committee, while Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel became chairpersons of committees and sub-committees responsible for different subjects. A notable development during that period having significant effect on the Indian constitution took place on 10 December 1948 when the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and called upon all member states to adopt these rights in their respective constitutions.
The chairman of the constitution drafting committee — B. R. Ambedkar

The Constitution of India was drafted over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 17 days.
The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly held its first sitting on the 9th December, 1946. It reassembled on the 14th August, 1947, as the sovereign Constituent Assembly for the Dominion of India. The proposed Constitution had been outlined by various committees of the Assembly like:
a) Union Constitution Committee , b) The Union Powers Committee , c) Committee on Fundamental Rights.
It was after a general discussion on the reports of these Committees that the Assembly appointed a Drafting Committee on the 29th August, 1947. The Drafting Committee, under the Chairmanship of Dr. Ambedkar, embodied the decision of the Assembly with alternative and additional proposals in the form of a 'Draft Constitution of India which was published in February, 1948.
The Constituent Assembly of India held two meetings in February 1948 and October 1949 to go through the clauses of the Draft. Finally, from 14th to 26th of November, 1949 the Constituent Assembly analyzed each and every provision of the Draft.
The Fundamental Rights were included in the Ist Draft Constitution (February 1948), the IInd Draft Constitution (17 October 1948) and the IIIrd and final Draft Constitution (26 November 1949), being prepared by the Drafting Committee.
After several sessions the consideration of the clauses or second reading was completed by the 17th October, 1949. The Constituent Assembly again sat on the 14th November, 1949, for the third reading and finished it on the 26th November, 1949, on which date the Constitution received the signature of the President of the Assembly and was declared as passed. The provisions relating to citizenship, elections, provisional Parliament, temporary and transitional provisions, were given immediate effect, i.e., from November 26, 1949. The rest of the Constitution came into force on the 26th January, 1950, and this date is referred to in the Constitution as the Date of its Commencement.
The Fundamental Rights were included in the constitution because they were considered essential for the development of the personality of every individual and to preserve human dignity. The writers of the constitution regarded democracy of no avail if civil liberties, like freedom of speech and religion were not recognized and protected by the State. According to them, "democracy" is, in essence, a government by opinion and therefore, the means of formulating public opinion should be secured to the people of a democratic nation. For this purpose, the constitution guaranteed to all the citizens of India the freedom of speech and expression and various other freedoms in the form of the Fundamental Rights.

"This information posted here is a part of Indian constitution has been downloaded from the website of Ministry of Law and Justice (Legislative Department)".
Content owned, maintained and updated by Legislative Department, Ministry of Law and Justice. All queries/comments regarding the content on this site may be sent to Legislative Department at E-Mail:
legis@nic.in

http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/welcome.html
http://www.iloveindia.com/constitution-of-india/index.html
http://www.iloveindia.com/constitution-of-india/right-to-freedom.html
source
http://www.mapsofindia.com/events/republic-day/indian-constitution.html
-----------------------------------------------
This web log(blog) is dedicated for ‘Freedom of Expression’, as a means/measure/ manoeuvre of social service, maintained and updated by Albert Ashok on behalf of http://rainbowartistsandwritersfoundation.blogspot.com a non-profit artists’ and writers’ organization defends ‘Freedom of Expression’ and ‘Human Rights’.
If you find any news/information is incorrect/wrong then please bring it to our knowledge for immediate correction, we express our unwilling ignorance and ready to make information correct. email :
rawfoundation@ymail.com Please visit us

Three Depressed terrorists

Three Depressed terrorists
Terrorism is inhuman act, an evil concept
Loading...